Cyber Physical Systems

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Cyber-physical systems (CPS) are smart systems that include engineered interacting networks of physical and computational components. CPS and related systems (including the Internet of Things (IoT) and the Industrial Internet) are widely recognized as having great potential to enable innovative applications and impact multiple economic sectors in the worldwide economy.

This paper focuses on the challenges of modeling cyber–physical systems (CPSs) that arise from the intrinsic
heterogeneity, concurrency, and sensitivity to timing of such systems. It uses a portion of an aircraft vehicle management
system (VMS), specifically the fuel management subsystem, to illustrate the challenges, and then discusses technologies
that at least partially address the challenges. Specific technologies described include hybrid system modeling and simula-
tion, concurrent and heterogeneous models of computation, the use of domain-specific ontologies to enhance modularity,
and the joint modeling of functionality and implementation architectures.

Cyber-Physical Systems (CPS) are monitored and controlled by a wide variety of sensors and controllers. The security
of our cyber-physical critical infrastructures depends on the integrity of these devices and the software they execute;
however, it has been repeatedly demonstrated that most of the devices interacting with the physical world (sensors and
controllers) are extremely fragile to security incidents. The insecurity of these devices ranges from insecure-by-design
implementations (e.g., devices that have a backdoor used for troubleshooting) to the inability to apply software updates to
vulnerable devices.

We describe an approach for analysing and attacking the physical part (a process) of a cyber-physical system. The
stages of this approach are demonstrated in a case study, a simulation of a vinyl acetate monomer plant. We want
to demonstrate in particular where security has to rely on expert knowledge in the domain of the physical components
and processes of a system and that there are major chal-lenges for converting cyber attacks into successful cyber-
physical attacks.